Explained: 55 COVID vaccines that give world hope
As the COVID-19 pandemic continues, there are dozens of trials for vaccines being conducted to find a way to save lives.
This is the latest list of 55 coronavirus vaccines:
*US Pfizer / BioNTech's vaccine is 95 per cent effective in preventing COVID-19. The company is seeking approval to market it in Australia which has ordered 10 million doses - enough to vaccinate 5 million people next year.
*US Moderna's vaccine 94.5 per cent effective in preventing COVID-19. The company seeking approval to go to market. Australia does not have a deal to buy this vaccine but could access it through the international vaccine supply arrangement called Covax.
*UK Oxford/Astra Zeneca's vaccine is up to 90 per cent effective in preventing COVID. Australia's CSL began making 30 million doses of this vaccine earlier this month and the first batch will be ready by Christmas. Australians will get it from March next year.
*US Novavax's vaccine is in Phase 2-3 trials which are due to report next year. The company aims to make at least 100 million doses by the end of the year. Australia has a deal to obtain 40 million doses in 2021.
*AUSTRALIA The University Queensland vaccine is currently in Phase 1 clinical trials in Brisbane. The Australian Government has a deal to buy 51 million doses of the vaccine manufactured by CSL with the first doses will be available by mid-2021.
* CHINA CanSino Biologics vaccine Convidecia is in final phase testing. It was approved as a "specially needed drug" for soldiers in China in July. Early trial results in The Lancet medical journal showed it was safe, and produced an immune response in the majority of recipients after 1 dose.
*CHINA Sinopham's vaccine developed by Wuhan Institute of Biological Products is still in the final phase of testing but has been given to more than a million people including essential workers in China and the United Arab Emirates. The company claims "there has not been a single case of infection after inoculation".
* CHINA Sinopharm is making another vaccine developed by the Beijing Institute of Biological Products which is in Phase 3 clinical trials in the United Arab Emirates and Argentina. It plans to produce a billion doses a year.
*CHINA Sinovac's CoronaVac vaccine released early stage trial data in The Lancet on November 17 which found it was safe but produced lower levels of antibodies to COVID-19 than found in patients who had recovered from the virus.
*US Johnson & Johnson's single dose vaccine produced a strong antibody response in Phase 1 trials and the company said it hopes to seek marketing approval in February. It began Phase 3 trials using 2 doses in November. The company plans to manufacture one billion doses next year.
* RUSSIA Russia's Sputnik V was found to be 92 per cent effective and was approved for use in Russia before final trials ended. It has been given to around 10,000 health workers in Russia.
*RUSSIA EpiVacCorona a peptide-based vaccine was successful in early clinical trials, more trials are underway.
*US Inovio's vaccine does not use a needle to deliver the shot but a device resembling an electric toothbrush without the bristles. It is in Phase 2/3 human clinical trials.
*FRANCE Sanofi plus GSK began early stage human trials of its vaccine that uses proteins grown inside insect cells in 400 people in September and it plans large scale trials in December.
*FRANCE Sanofi plus GSK is also developing an mRNA vaccine in early human safety trials.
*INDIA Zydus Cadila's DNA-based vaccine is delivered by a skin patch and is currently in Phase 2 trials in over 1000 people in India. The company hopes to have its vaccine on the market by March, 2021. It plans to make 150 million doses a year.
*JAPAN Japanese company Anger began trials of its DNA-based vaccine, developed in partnership with Osaka University and Takara Bio in July.
*GERMANY Curevac's Phase 1 human trial in Peru produced an encouraging response. It is planning a Phase 3 trial by the end of 2020. It aims to make 100 million vaccine doses by the end of the year.
*SOUTH KOREA Genexine began human safety trials of its DNA-based vaccine in June.
*UK Imperial College London started human trials of its RNA vaccine in June and reports human volunteers were responding well to the vaccine. It is planning a large 20,000 person trial by the end of this year.
*CHINA Anhui Zhifei Longcom began Phase 1 human trials in China in June. The vaccine uses a combination of viral proteins to stimulate the immune system.
*AUSTRALIA The vaccine, being developed by Aussie biotech company Vaxine and Adelaide's Flinders University completed Phase 1 trials in July and hopes to start Phase 2 trials overseas early next year.
*CANADA Medicago reported positive results from its phase 1 trials in November with 100 per cent of volunteers developing antibodies after 2 doses. It is made by injecting the virus genes into the leaves of plants.
*INDIA Bharat Biotech's vaccine Covaxin uses an inactivated rabies virus and early human safety trials were positive and Phase 3 trials began in October. The company says the vaccine could be ready by early 2021.
*AUSTRALIA The tuberculosis vaccine BCG is being trialled by the Murdoch Children's Research Institute in Australia to see if it protects against the coronavirus. Phase 3 trials are underway in Australia and the UK.
*US Merck is fusing genetic material from the coronavirus with a livestock virus called vesicular stomatitis that can infect people but does not make them ill. The vaccine will be delivered as a pill not an injection and is in Phase 1 safety trials.
*US Merck is making a second vaccine that uses a weakened measles virus and early stage human trials began in August.
*US Kentucky BioProcessing is using tobacco leaves to produce its CovidVax vaccine and early safety trials in humans are underway.
*CHINA An mRNA vaccine called ARCoV developed by China's Academy of Military Medical Sciences began early safety trials in humans in June.
*CHINA Clover Biopharmaceuticals S-Trimer vaccine is in Phase 1 human safety trials after it was shown to produce an immune response in animals.
*TAIWAN Vaccine company Medigen has a COVID vaccine in Phase 1 trials and plans to manufacture 20 million doses next year.
*TAIWAN Adimmune began Phase 1 human safety trials of its COVID-19 vaccine in August.
*ITALY biotechnology company ReiThera has developed a COVID-19 vaccine based on a common cold virus that infects gorillas. Early human trials has found it is safe. Phase 2-3 trials are due to start soon.
*SINGAPORE/ US Arcturus Therapeutics and Duke-NUS Medical School in Singapore are developing an mRNA vaccine and interim Phase1/2 trial results show it produces a similar immune response to that in people who caught COVID-19.
*US Researchers at City of Hope created a vaccine based on a weakened form of the Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA) virus. Phase 1 human safety trials began in November.
* CANADA Symvivo began Phase 1 human trials of its DNA vaccine BacTRL-Spike in Australia in November.
*UK SpyBiotech began early human safety trials of its vaccine in Australia in September. It fuses cells from the hepatitis B virus with those from the virus that causes COVID-19.
*US Vaxart began a Phase 1 human safety trial of its tablet vaccine the VXA-CoV2-1 vaccine in November.
*US University Pittsburgh's COVID-19 vaccine PittCoVacc is delivered via a skin patch similar to a Band-Aid covered with 400 microneedles and is in Phase 1 human clinical trials.
*THAILAND Thailand's Chulalongkorn University began human clinical trials of its ChulaCov19 vaccine in September.
*CANADA Entos Pharmaceuticals began Phase 1 human safety trials of its vaccine Covigenix VAX-001 in October. Most vaccines target COVID-19's spike proteins this one targets a protein inside the viruses membrane.
*US OncoSec Immunotherapies began human clinical trials of its vaccine CORVax12 in November.
*HONG KONG University of Hong Kong were developing a nasal spray vaccine for the flu and have converted it to prevent COVID-19 human safety trials began in September.
*GERMANY German Center for Infection Research has started Phase 1 human safety trials of a vaccine using a harmless virus called Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA).
*US ImmunityBio is developing a vaccine using the adenovirus that causes the common cold and began Phase 1 safety trials in October.
*ISRAEL the Israel Institute for Biological Research has developed a vaccine called Brilife that began human safety trials in October. It uses an animal virus called vesicular stomatitis that does not make humans sick.
*US Baylor College of Medicine began a Phase 1 human safety trial of its vaccine repurposed from the 2003 SARS outbreak.
*CHINA West China Hospital of Sichuan University began Phase 2 human trials of a vaccine made using insect cells.
*US COVAXX began Phase 1 trials in Taiwan in September.
*GERMANY University of Tübingen began Phase 1 human safety trials of its vaccine in September.
*CUBA Finlay Vaccine Institute has begun human clinical trials of its vaccine which is fused with a common tetanus injection.
*NORTH KOREA Claimed in July it has started human clinical trials of a Covid vaccine.
* KAZAKHSTAN has begun Phase 1 clinical trials of a vaccine called QazCovid in August.
*CHINA Shenzhen Kangtai Biological Products began a Phase 1 human safety trial of an inactivated vaccine in October.
*US Codagenix is recreating the coronavirus from scratch, rewriting its genome with mutations that make it too weak to cause a COVID-19 infection. It began human clinical trials in November.
Originally published as Explained: 55 COVID vaccines that give world hope